LITERACY AND LEARNING DISABILITY IN FREDERICK, MD
Language problems are a consequence of both reading and writing problems in children, adolescents and adults. Individuals with reading and writing problems may experience difficulties using language strategically to communicate.
Studies have shown that children with language impairments, such as dyslexia, are four to five times more likely to have difficulties reading than their typically developing peers.
Speech language pathologists play an important role in the prevention of literacy problems; their goal is to promote opportunities for success in spoken and written language for individuals with and without communication disorders.
Early Intervention is Crucial with a Suspected Learning Disability
Learning disabilities are a group of disorders caused by central nervous system dysfunction. These disorders involve difficulty in developing and using speaking, reading, writing and reasoning skills - skills that are essential for academic success.
A learning disability does not suddenly appear at ages 8, 9, or 10; it is usually a continuation of specific language problems from early childhood, even though it may not be identified until a child is older.
One of the most critical periods in literacy development actually takes place before children enter elementary school. Three and four year olds must learn valuable pre-literacy skills so that they do not start kindergarten already behind. The following six pre-literacy skills are essential for the foundation and progression of literacy development and critical for reading, comprehension and written language success.
Print awareness: noticing words everywhere, knowing how to handle a book, knowing how to follow words on a page
Print Motivation: a child's interest in and enjoyment of books
Vocabulary: knowing the names of objects, people and places
Narrative Skills: being able to describe things and being able to understand and tell stories
Letter Awareness: learning that letters are different from each other and learning that each letter has a specific name and corresponding sound
Phonological Awareness: Phonological awareness consists of skills that typically develop gradually and sequentially through the late preschool period. They are developed with direct training and exposure.
Phonological awareness involves the 1) awareness of sounds in a language, awareness of rhymes, 2) awareness that sentences can be broken down into words, syllables, and sounds, 3) the ability to manipulate sounds and 4) understanding the relationship between written and spoken language